Flipping Houses

What’s in a Contract? Almost Everything You Need to Know About Contractor Contracts

Expertise: Real Estate Investing Basics, Real Estate News & Commentary, Flipping Houses, Mortgages & Creative Financing
35 Articles Written

[Big Disclaimer: I am not a lawyer and I don’t play one on TV.  The information I provide below is just my opinion based on my experiences, and shouldn’t be construed as anything more than that…it certainly shouldn’t be construed as legal advice.  If you have any questions about the legal aspects of what I write, I highly recommend you consult a qualified legal professional who no-doubt will know more about the subject than I do.  Now, on with the post…]

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As someone so focused on building scalable systems in my business, you might guess that I’m a big fan of contracts.  And you’d be right!

So, in this post, I want to discuss the most common type of contract that I use as a rehabber – contracts for my contractors.  I’ll also touch on a few common misconceptions about contracts and at the end of this post, I’ll even provide a sample contract for your review.

Why I Use Them

I flip about 15-20 houses per year, and on each flip, I use an average of ten contractors. That adds up to about 150-200 contracts per year that I need to write! I could probably save several hours of time by not writing contracts, but one major dispute with a contractor that ends up in court could easily eat up twice as much time (and quite a bit of money as well). So, in my opinion, writing contracts are worth every minute that I spend doing it.

By using contracts consistently throughout all my projects and with all my contractors, I sleep better at night knowing that I’m pretty well protected, both legally and financially.  Of course, no contract is bullet-proof, and anyone can sue me for any reason, but having a contract in place makes it all the more unlikely that that will happen; and if it ever does, I’m happy to take my chances in court.

And, not only do the contracts I use protect me and my business, they protect my contractors as well.  They know what I expect and they never have to worry about me trying to take advantage of them by adding work or “forgetting” payments.  Contracts are a two-way street that – when used properly in this business – can provide a peace-of-mind to both the investor and to the contractor.

But, I’m not going to spend any more time trying to convince you to use contracts for your contractors…instead I’m going to talk a bit about what a good contract looks like…

Contract Myths

Before we jump into the details of what a contractor contract should contain, first let’s dispel a couple common myths about contracts:

Myth #1:  Contracts need to have a lot of legalese and/or be written by a lawyer to be worthwhile.

A lot of up-and-coming investors will decide that, because they can’t afford to hire an attorney to write their contracts, it’s not worth even having one.  While getting a contract written by (or even just reviewed by) an attorney will go a long way towards ensuring that your interests are protected, it’s much better to have a self-written contract than no contact at all.  While judges are trained to interpret contracts very literally, they also are reasonable enough to take common-sense and intent into account when resolving a contract dispute.  So, don’t forego a contract just because you don’t have a law degree or can’t afford to hire an attorney.

Myth #2:  It’s better to have long/complicated contracts than to have short/simple contracts.

We all know that stereotypical contract that’s dozens of pages of small print that covers every possible contingency in gory detail.  But, while one purpose of a contract is to protect your (and the other party’s) interests, the other purpose of a contract is to ensure that both parties are on the same page with respect to the transaction at hand.  Plenty of contract disputes arise not because one party is looking to “take the money and run,” but instead because the parties never really understood what the other party was agreeing to.  Sometimes, all it takes is a couple sentences to reasonably describe each party’s rights and responsibilities, and is enough for both sides to really understand what they’re agreeing to before it’s too late.

Myth #3:  You don’t need a contract for a small/inexpensive job.

Just because a transaction only involves a small amount of time and/or money doesn’t mean that a contract isn’t important.  Hiring a handyman to screw in a lightbulb for $2 may seem pretty straightforward, but if that handyman electrocutes himself in the process, having a contract may mean the difference between you visiting your handyman in the hospital and you meeting your handyman in court while he’s suing you for everything you’ve got.

Elements Of A Contractor Contract

With those things in mind, let’s talk about the key components of a contract you might use with a contractor who is working on one of your properties.  Remember, these are things that many investors feel are important to have in a contract, but this is by-no-means a complete list of contract issues that might be included in your contract.

Ultimately, you’ll need to decide what things are important for you to have in your contract, and while most of these things below will probably make the cut, that’s for you (and perhaps your attorney) to decide.

Independent Contractor Status: One of the most important things most attorneys will recommend you include in your contract is a very clear declaration that the contractor is an “independent contractor,” and is not your employee.  This is important for several reasons:

  • From a liability standpoint, you may be required to carry certain forms of insurance for your employees.  If your contractor gets hurt on the job, and can make a case that he is an employee of yours (it’s not as far-fetched as you might think!), you may be on the hook to cover his medical expenses and other claims.
  • From a tax standpoint, you are required to withhold taxes from paychecks and also to pay certain employer-related taxes.  If the IRS deems your contractor an employee (again, it’s more likely than you might think), you may be on the hook for taxes and penalties.
  • From a benefits standpoint, if after a job is complete, your contractor claims to have been an employee of yours – and if the unemployment office agrees – you could be on the hook to pay his unemployment benefits.
  • From both a liability and from a financial standpoint, it’s extremely important that you clearly define your contractors role in your business – and that role is as an independent contractor, not an employee.

Also, keep in mind that the IRS has a number of tests to determine if someone is an employee or an independent contractor.  For example, if you provide the tools to the worker, the IRS will be inclined to consider that worker an employee.  Likewise, if you direct the worker as to how the job will be completed, when he must show up and go home, etc, the IRS is more likely to determine that worker is an employee.

For this reason, these sorts of things should be called out specifically in the contract.  For example, your contract probably should state that the contractor will provide his own tools.

Scope of Work: Perhaps it goes without saying, but just in case…  Your contract should call out – as specifically as possible – the tasks that your contractor is being hired to perform.  Don’t be afraid to go into gory detail if you think there is any possibility of confusion or miscommunication.

Will your contractor provide the materials for the job (or maybe some of them)?  Will your contractor be required to clean up each day before he leaves?  Will your contractor be required to coordinate his schedule with other contractors?  Whatever it is, make it clear in the contract.

Compensation: Again, it probably goes without saying, but your contract should define how much and when your contractor will get paid.  Perhaps the contractor will get paid based on milestones he surpasses (i.e,. 25% complete, 50% complete, etc).  Or perhaps the contractor will get paid upon completion of specific tasks (i.e., 50% upon completion of exterior work).

However you plan to pay your contractor, spell it out clearly in the contract so that there is no confusion once the project has started.

Insurance Requirements: I highly recommend that you require your contractors to carry insurance – both general liability insurance and workman’s comp insurance.  Assuming you do have these requirements, make sure it is in the contract.  Along with having the contractor agree to carry insurance, I recommend having the contract specify that the contractor will provide proof of this insurance prior to work commencing.

Deadlines and Penalties: One of the most frustrating aspects of working with contractors (in my experience) is that they are happy to drag their feet if you let them.  While it’s can be painful to have to argue with a contractor over whether he was supposed to finish this week or next, why argue?  Whip out your contract and prove to everyone involved when the work was supposed to complete…and more importantly, what the penalty is for the work not completing on schedule.

I always give my contractors plenty of extra time to complete their work, and also make it clear that if the schedule slips (for reasons not outside their control), they will pay a weekly penalty.  I’ve never had to impose that penalty, and I’m guessing it’s in large part because my contractors know what they’ve agreed to and know what the penalty is for missing their dates.

Other Stuff: There are dozens of other terms and issues you can address in your contract that I won’t go into detail on here.  To touch on a few:  indemnification against liability, arbitration in the event of dispute, rights and responsibilities to terminate the contract, required use of lien waivers, etc.  Again, you must decide what’s important to you in a contract and then ensure that it’s adequately covered.

Sample Contract

This topic wouldn’t be complete without a sample contract for you to review to get a better understanding of how all these pieces fit together.  In this case, I’ll be providing a template of the exact contract I use for every contractor and work task performed on my properties.

Before I provide a link to the contract, a few notes/disclaimers:

  • While this contract has been reviewed by my attorney (he wrote much of it), it is specific to Georgia state law and to my needs.  You are welcome to do with it what you like, but keep in mind that it may or may not suit your needs and may or may not hold up based on the laws of your state.  Who knows, it may not even hold up based on the laws of my state…luckily I haven’t had to find out…  J
  • The contract I use (and provide below) has two parts.  The first part is the “Independent Contractors Agreement” and is signed by each and every contractor before the first time they do any work for me.  The contractor only signs this part of the contract once, and it stays in effect forever (or until it’s terminated by either myself or the contractor).
  • The second part of the contract is the “Scope of Work” and is specific to each project.  This part of the contract lays out the work items to be performed by the contractor for a specific project, the compensation, deadline, penalty, etc and is completed and signed for each new project that the contractor undertakes.  The two parts together form the basis for a full contract between your contractor and you for a specific set of tasks at a specific property.
  • I’ll reiterate one last time:  Don’t assume that this contract will protect you without reviewing it with an attorney to ensure it is applicable to the laws of your state and to ensure that it meets your specific legal needs.

All that said, here the contract templates:

Part 1:  Independent Contractor Agreement

Part 2:  Scope of Work


J Scott runs a real estate company that invests in several parts of the country and that specializes in new construction, as well as purchasing, rehabbing and reselling distressed properties. J is ...
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    Joshua Dorkin
    Replied about 10 years ago
    Many novice flippers might find that using contracts for every contractor they work with is tedious, but as you said, there are very important reasons to do so. I wish I could have read this when I started investing; I’ve made a LOT of mistakes working with contractors, wasting a LOT of time and a LOT of money — much of that could have been avoided by properly using some contracts. Great post!
    Replied about 10 years ago
    Thanks for the great info and contract template Scott!
    Jason Luke
    Replied about 10 years ago
    Not really too sure why people get so upset about entering into a contract, we are long past the days when a handshake meant something. It really just covers both parties in case of a breach. Jason Luke
    Jason Luke
    Replied about 10 years ago
    Not really too sure why people get so upset about entering into a contract, we are long past the days when a handshake meant something. It really just covers both parties in case of a breach. Jason Luke Reply Report comment
    Replied about 10 years ago
    I have to wonder, with all that legal wording, do you ever scare contractors off? Also, 4a states that the contractor will be an LLC or Corp. So you recommend never hiring a handyman or the local immigrant workforce? Thanks.
    Replied about 10 years ago
    As always, very informative and helpful. Thanks Scott!
    Stephani Davis
    Replied about 10 years ago
    Hey J. Scott- awesome to see you are now posting on the BP blog! Great article, too, btw. 🙂
    J Scott
    Replied about 10 years ago
    Thanks for all the nice comments, folks! Mike – I’ve never had a contractor refuse to sign the contract, or even have an issue with it. The biggest issue I’ve gotten is that many of the larger contracting companies have their own contracts, and would prefer me to sign their *instead* of their signing mine. Normally, their contract is just as good (or better), so I have no problem doing that. As for 4a, I had never considered that it doesn’t cover sole proprietors, and I’ll definitely update that to be more comprehensive. That said, I never hire anyone who doesn’t have both workers’ comp insurance and general liability…this tends to exclude most migrant workers.
    Rafael C. Investor from Paterson, NJ
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hi I clicked on the links and nothing comes out, It seems as if these templates are no longer available. Does anyone have an updated version? Or if anyone can just email me the document, It would be greatly appreciative. [email protected]
    Candace Wiley Investor from Greenville, South Carolina
    Replied 2 months ago
    I'm also having the same issue. @J Scott, can you help?
    David Leon
    Replied about 2 years ago
    Was anyone able to get access to the templates I would love a copy myself
    Zain Bhatti from Houston, TX
    Replied over 2 years ago
    I am having the same issue. Can someone email these to me at [email protected]. Thanks for the post J Scott
    Kim Forgione from Battle Ground, Washington
    Replied over 2 years ago
    I would love copies as well. TIA 🙂
    Replied about 10 years ago
    Regarding the section on Insurance in the contract “. Contractor will also obtain Commercial General Liability insurance with limits of liability of not less than one million dollars ($1,000,000.00) naming COMPANY as an additional insured. Contractor will provide a certificate to COMPANY of such insurance coverage upon request.” Its not clear to my why a contractor would agree to this. I have tried with my contractor and he refuses on the grounds that it will open him up to liabilities that are not related to the work he does on the property but directly related to the company. Any comments?
    Replied over 5 years ago
    thats standard operating proceedure for construction contracts. especially in commercial construction. you wont see a contract without it.
    Joey Chen
    Replied about 10 years ago
    Thanks for the templates!
    Replied about 8 years ago
    What if an agreement has been made between a client and a contractor but no Contract has been issued and signed, just a verbal agreement in Skype. And the client has already paid the contractor a 30% upfront, and the contractor has done a substantial amount of work based on the verbally agreed work to be done for the 30% upfront. Suddenly, the client didn’t like the work and he wants his money back. Does the client have the right to do that? Can he do something legal say sue or demand the contractor for the money back and it’s all a verbal/chatted agreement?
    Replied about 8 years ago
    Love this blog… but do you have any experience with contractors receiving a % of profit from the sale of a home they reabbed? Any experience or contracts in addition to the great ones you posted?
    Jeff Li
    Replied over 7 years ago
    on 3. “””Term and Termination. This Agreement shall be effective for a period of one (1) year starting on the date hereof and will renew automatically for successive one (1) year terms unless terminated as prescribed herein. COMPANY may terminate this Agreement or any SOW for any reason, on at least seven (7) days’ prior written notice, which notice shall specify the exact date of termination. Either party may terminate this Agreement or any SOW for cause immediately upon written notice.””” —-what happened if the contractor terminate the contracts and poor work have been done and damage has been made to the property? or the payment is ahead of the work when the contractor terminate the contract?
    Jorge Caicedo
    Replied over 6 years ago
    15-20 flips a year? what’s the secret? I’m looking at 4 fix and flips for next year and I feel that that’s too much but I also work full time…if you’re averaging 1 prop a month, are they fixer uppers or homes which need very little work and you’re wholesaling? just curious b/c most flippers I are doing 6 a year at best…great post btw and extra thx for the contact examples..
    Jorge Caicedo
    Replied over 6 years ago
    Ahhh ok, that makes sense….I’d like to do it full time but the taxes are already gonna eat me alive so i’m keeping the day job to avoid the Self Employment tax and figure 4 props a year should be enough to not categorize me as a full time dealer by the IRS… Plus 4 props a year @ $40-$50k per flip each(after lender and realtor have been paid ) isn’t too shabby of a 2nd income lol…Thx for the prompt reply
    Replied about 6 years ago
    Thanks a lot Scott. Just what I have been looking for.
    Pam Proctor
    Replied almost 6 years ago
    I am just starting my business adventure and wanted to take time to thank you for all of this awesome information! I look forward to receiving your emails and investing in your books!
    Anil Samuel Investor from Baltimore, MD
    Replied about 5 years ago
    Thanks for all the wonderful information you provide J!!!
    Eric Gabriel Investor from Portland, OR
    Replied almost 5 years ago
    I can’t seem to download the templates. I click them and I go to the .doc link, but there is no prompt to download.
    Sam S
    Replied almost 5 years ago
    Please fix the downloadable links. Thanks
    Ind Kon from Allen, Texas
    Replied almost 5 years ago
    Thank you Scott. I tried to download the templates “Independent Contractor Agreement” and “Scope of Work” but they appear unavailable. Can you please make them available again? Thank you Indira
    Michelle Cobbs Investor from Copiague, New York
    Replied almost 5 years ago
    Great Article, definitely will revisit this when needed. Thanks J. Michelle
    Replied almost 5 years ago
    Scott, I tried to download the templates “Independent Contractor Agreement” and “Scope of Work” but they appear unavailable. Can you please relist them? Thank you Ed
    Replied almost 5 years ago
    Scott, I tried to download the templates “Independent Contractor Agreement” and “Scope of Work” but they appear unavailable. Can you please relist them? Thank you Ed Reply Report comment
    Laura O. Investor from Atlanta, Georgia
    Replied almost 5 years ago
    Hi J. Scott – Can you please re-post the independent contractor’s agreement and scope of work? The links are no longer there. Thanks Laura
    James W. Investor, Entrepreneur from Greenville, Wisconsin
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Same as the last 2 comments. Appreciate the article! Please follow up with the promised goods.
    Clay Smith Property Manager from Louisville, KY
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Just look in the fileplace under Contracts published by JScott. With the website redesign they most likely got moved. https://www.biggerpockets.com/files/user/JasonScott/file/14-independent-contractors-agreement—part-1 https://www.biggerpockets.com/files/user/JasonScott/file/15-independent-contractors-agreement—part-2 or just view all his files here: https://www.biggerpockets.com/files/user/JasonScott
    Martine C. from Clearwater, Florida
    Replied over 3 years ago
    Thanks for the links. Very helpful!
    Alexandra Chaploutskiy Rental Property Investor
    Replied over 1 year ago
    Thank you for the links, Clay!
    Zain Bhatti from Houston, TX
    Replied over 2 years ago
    None of these links work. Can you send the docs to [email protected]
    Lou R. Investor from West Hartford, CT
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Thanks for a great article and documents @J Scott ! 1 question: Section 8b of the ICA states “COMPANY will have no right or responsibility hereunder to provide instructions or training, require any work other than what is agreed to by Contractor in this Agreement or any SOW, choose or supervise the personnel used to perform the Services, set Contractor’s hours or location of work, other than the actual construction site when required, set the order for or sequence of performing the Services, require progress reports, or provide tools, facilities or equipment.” – I understand the intent of this clause, but how does the fact that it states you don’t set the order or sequence of work or require progress reports relate to the contractor meeting deadlines agreed upon for the work? Does this impede supervision and accountability in any way? What are you allowed to do under the provisions of this contract to hold the contractor accountable and keep the work on track (aside from the penalty structure, which is great). Thanks again for your help!
    J Scott Developer from Sarasota, FL
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Lou, As an Independent Contractor, you’re technically not allowed to babysit your contractor per IRS regulation. You certainly have the right to verify that work is being completed as agreed (that’s why having a schedule and milestones is so important), but other than penalties, if you try to do anything else, you run the risk of running afoul of IRS rules. Now, that said, there are a lot rules that make a contractor and a contractor, so running afoul of this one may or may not cause issues. Additionally, you need to weight the risk versus the benefit of doing a little babysitting. I can’t answer specifically, but in general, I try to give my contractors as much leeway as possible until they prove they aren’t getting the job done. At that point, I’ll do a little bit of babysitting, but if that doesn’t work, I just get rid of them. If they can’t get the job done without a lot of babysitting, they probably aren’t the contractor for me. All that said, I’m not a lawyer or an IRS expert…so take it all as just my interpretation and experience. Thanks, J
    Douglas Vogel Rental Property Investor from Washington
    Replied over 4 years ago
    I downloaded the documents but appear to open a blank word document. What am I missing?haha Doug
    Elias Dagher Investor from Surrey, British Columbia
    Replied about 4 years ago
    It seems the file links are broken! Can you update?
    Charlie Carter from jacksonville, fl
    Replied about 4 years ago
    I am trying to open the links, but they no longer open. Could you fix these please? BTW, I have your books and have found them extremely helpful. Thanks
    Marcus Sedberry from Waco, Texas
    Replied about 4 years ago
    Hi Charlie, I had the same issues. If you scroll up to @Clay Smith’s comment a few posts up, you will see the updated links to the templates. Very useful! Thanks @J Scott!
    Tom Lowe from Seattle, Washington
    Replied almost 4 years ago
    When I try to download or look at the ICA in this post it is blank. Have you deleted it?
    Replied over 3 years ago
    Same here – both part 1 and part 2 links take me to a blank page
    Gary Mcmahand from Chester, Virginia
    Replied over 3 years ago
    Excellent info for people who are just beginning. Wish the links would work though.
    Oscar Rosales from Fresno, California
    Replied over 3 years ago
    Hello also trying to open the link but coming up blank any suggestion?
    Christopher Winkler Specialist from Dallas, TX
    Replied over 3 years ago
    Both templates are blank, can someone fix please???
    J Scott Developer from Sarasota, FL
    Replied over 3 years ago
    I don’t know why these links are no longer working, but I know these files are bundled with the BiggerPockets Flipping/Estimating books when purchased from this site…
    Keith W. Investor from Downingtown, PA
    Replied over 3 years ago
    After further research I found Clay Smith’s links noted above. The examples have been very helpful. Much thanks to both Clay and J. Scott. Love BiggerPockets.
    Thao Kieu Real Estate Professional from Totowa, NJ
    Replied over 3 years ago
    I came through this while looking for contractor to do some renovation in my house, thank you J very much for putting this together & wishing you more success in your business. The link to the documents did not work, would you mind to share it again please? Appreciate your time & help.
    Josh Logan Investor from Fort Lauderdale, Florida
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hi! Great article, can you repost or email the sample documents? The link does not work.
    Umesh Reddy from Houston, Texas
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Excellent information. The forms are very valuable.
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Anyone has a copy of the template? Link doesn’t work.
    GC Vaghasia from Norwood, New Jersey
    Replied about 2 years ago
    Unfortunately, the link does not work. Does anyone have a working link they can share?
    Darshan Patel Real Estate Agent from Sicklerville, New Jersey
    Replied about 2 years ago
    Great article, For those looking for downloads I found the contracts at Fileplace https://www.biggerpockets.com/files/user/JasonScott/file/14-independent-contractors-agreement—part-1 https://www.biggerpockets.com/files/user/JasonScott/file/15-independent-contractors-agreement—part-2
    Scott Nidell from Georgetown, TX
    Replied over 1 year ago
    Links are broken =(
    Mitchell Benson from Willis, TX
    Replied about 1 year ago
    oh no…. Broken Links!
    Kisa Adderley
    Replied 5 months ago
    Part 1 and Part 2 Links dont work!
    Nick Peraino Rental Property Investor from Pensacola, FL
    Replied 5 months ago
    Correct... they are not working.
    Steven E. from Mountain View, CA
    Replied 4 months ago
    Links are still broken :(
    Juliet Hawthorn
    Replied about 2 months ago
    Some one should really get this fixed ☹️
    Yuji Miyamoto from Torrance, CA
    Replied about 1 month ago
    @J Scott Hi J, nice article! Seems like the templates are not available. I would appreciate if you could repost or send them to me. Thanks!!!
    Greg Sharp
    Replied 30 days ago
    Any chance of getting the links to load?