The Best and Worst Markets for Residential Real Estate Investors, 2016

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BiggerPockets (, the world’s largest online hub for real estate investors, today released its 2016 BiggerPockets Real Estate Investment Market Index (downloadable spreadsheet available here). This Index analyzed the 50 largest U.S. MSAs (Metropolitan Statistical Areas) to determine those that were most likely to produce outsized returns for residential real estate investors between 2015 and 2016.

BiggerPockets also breaks down those markets of the top 50 MSAs that were most likely to produce the worst returns for real estate investors.

The 10 Best Markets for Real Estate Investors

Dallas, TX tops the list of real estate markets over the period studied for the second year running with an even better year than last, exhibiting strong price appreciation, while remaining a market in which investors saw strong rents relative to property values. Dallas, TX investors stood to earn 20.7% unleveraged returns over the past year compared to 19.5% the year prior.

Falling closely behind Dallas, Portland, OR takes the number two spot, driven largely by almost a national best 14.6% year over year appreciation in home values over the period. Denver, the runner-up last year, falls to third place with a 13.8% appreciation driving most of the returns for investors.

Rounding out the top 10 are two Florida markets, two more Texas markets, Nashville, Atlanta, and Seattle, WA.

Top 10 Cities Offering the Most Opportunity for Real Estate Investors, 2016

  1. Dallas, TX
  2. Portland, OR
  3. Denver, CO
  4. Miami, FL
  5. Tampa, FL
  6. Seattle, WA
  7. Nashville, TN
  8. Atlanta, GA
  9. Houston, TX
  10. Austin, TX


The 10 Worst Markets for Real Estate Investors

The worst markets in the country, for the most part, had relatively low rents per dollar in home value and suffered negative or low appreciation over the time period. The Northeast and Midwest contained the bulk of the cities likely to produce the worst returns for real estate investors, but two California markets made the list in spite of relatively average appreciation due to exceptionally low rent-to-value ratios.

Related: The Real Estate Market: How to Analyze and Predict Cycles

Indianapolis, IN was the market in the study that offered the least opportunity for residential real estate investors overall. In a year when most markets saw strong appreciation gains, residential real estate prices actually fell about 2.57% year over year in the Indianapolis MSA. The poor returns offered by the Indianapolis market were followed by Washington, D.C.

The New York City MSA also found its way into the list of the top 10 worst markets for residential real estate investors, with relatively weak appreciation accompanied by low rents per dollar invested.

The chart below shows the 10 worst markets for real estate investors:


The Top 10 Markets for Residential Property Appreciation

Appreciation gains drove much of the return for residential real estate investors, and if we isolate the 10 markets with the strongest appreciation gains, we see a lot of familiar names with overlap to the top 10 overall markets.

The Portland, OR metro region tops the list with a whopping 14.59% year over year increase in sales prices for residential real estate. Following Portland are the Denver, Dallas, and San Jose, CA markets. Seattle, Nashville, San Francisco, Tampa, and Austin, TX were also included in the top 10.

The chart below shows the 10 best markets for appreciation for real estate investors:


The Top 10 Markets for Strong Rent-to-Value Ratios

Many investors prefer cash flow potential of residential real estate over appreciation potential. While appreciation is
notoriously difficult to predict and highly speculative, it is perhaps more likely that the large metro regions in this study will continue to see similar levels of gross rent relative to the value of their property over the next few years. At the very least, HUD releases 2017 Fair Market Rents well in advance, and with a price floor set by the government, investors can rest a little bit easier with their assumptions about cash flow.

This study suggests that the best places to look for cash flow given the returns over the past 18 months are in Southern and Midwestern markets. Memphis, TN offered residential investors the largest amount of gross rent in relation to property value of the markets studied for the second year in a row. It is trailed by Detroit, MI, and Tampa FL.

The chart below shows the 10 best markets that offered strong rent-to-value ratios for residential real estate investors:



Purpose: This index seeks to determine which of the 50 most populous U.S. metro markets were most likely to have provided strong returns for residential real estate investors between early 2015 and early 2016. This index measures both appreciation and gross rents as a percentage of average purchase prices.

Analysis: Investor returns in real estate are largely driven by two key factors — appreciation and cash flow. Appreciation is fairly straightforward in most calculations. In this study, it is simply the percentage price increase in residential real estate over the time period studied. Cash flow, conversely, is a function of both gross rents collected and expenses. Because a large number of factors influence rental property expenses and many of these factors are difficult to accurately quantify (landlord friendly/unfriendly laws, for example), we ignore expenses for the purposes of this study and focus solely on gross rents as a percentage of purchase price.

Calculations: Gross rents are calculated as a function of average Fair Market rents, as provided by HUD, as well as median property values in early 2014, as provided by Zillow’s Home Value Index. Where possible, actual sales data from Zillow was used for median home price calculations. In the case of several markets, sales data was not available, and Zillow’s Home Value Index was used instead.

For example, a property purchased for $100,000 in early 2015 might receive $1,000 in rent in 2015 and $1,100 in 2016, averaging $1,050 per month, or $12,600 annualized. Gross rents in this instance average to 12.6% of the initial value.

Appreciation is calculated as the change in price from the beginning of the period studied to the end of the period studied. For example, if the average purchase price in an area studied was $100,000 in early 2015 and increased to $105,000 in early 2016, then appreciation would be 5%.

Method: A multi-step process was used to aggregate data that allowed for a reasonable estimate of appreciation and gross rents collected as a function of beginning property values in the top 50 metro areas.

Aggregate property data ultimately derives from Zillow’s Home Value Index. Here, we look at the median sales price, and an original copy of the dataset is available upon request or at for those looking to dig deeper.

This data is a reflection of Zillow’s data for actual sales prices in the respective regions studied. To combat the limitations of Zillow’s data, which may not be robust enough in smaller cities, the study is limited to only the top 50 U.S. metropolitan markets as measured by population. Higher population regions of the country are more likely to experience a higher volume of transactions, giving Zillow more data points to work with, therefore increasing the likelihood of an accurate reflection of sales prices. Furthermore, by taking an average of sales prices across six months, we increase our sample size and lessen the risk of specific months significantly skewing our results.

The average property value across the first six months of 2015 is considered the “initial” property value or “purchase price,” and the average value across the first six months of 2016 is considered the “final” property value or “sale price.” The difference between the the two prices is then used to calculate appreciation.

Rent data is pulled directly from HUD ( HUD Fair Market rents vary by county and were not readily available by metro. In order for the study to compare Fair Market rents to the property values taken from Zillow, county data needed to be converted to reasonable estimates for each metro area. This study converts the data using a weighted average of Fair Market rents across each of the counties comprising a given metro area.

Related: Don’t Believe the Housing Bubble Rumors — Unless You’re in These 7 Markets

In calculating a weighted average, many metrics could have been used, including population, land area, total housing units, etc. In this study, Fair Market rents are weighted by population. This “weighted average” of Fair Market rents is then applied to the entire metro area.

Note that Fair Market rents also vary by number of bedrooms. This study averages Fair Market rents of units from 0–4 beds for each county and uses that as the “Fair Market rent” for that county.

This process is repeated using Fair Market rents for both 2015 and 2016.

This Fair Market rent for the each metro area is then used to calculate gross rents as a percentage of the beginning purchase price. Again, as mentioned previously, a $100,000 property receiving $1,000 in rent in 2015 and $1,100 in 2016 would average $1,050 per month, or $12,600 per year. Gross rents per dollar invested would come to about 12.6%.

The final step in this process adds together appreciation as a percentage of initial property values and average gross annual rents as a percentage of initial property values. This calculation reveals in percentage terms the markets where real estate investors looking to buy residential real estate properties were most likely to receive a favorable combination of both gross rents and total appreciation per dollar invested over the period from early 2015 to mid-2016.

It will be obvious to any investor looking at this data that expenses are not included in this study. Expenses vary widely across the 50 metros studied and are impacted by factors such as taxes, insurance, weather/climate, cost of living, landlord friendly/unfriendly laws, contractor costs, and other similar variables. Furthermore, even if accurate data on each of the many expenses listed were readily available to the public, expenses can also vary from investor to investor based on non-market forces like diligence in property management, variations in tenant screening processes, experience with contractors and handyman work, and other experience-related advantages. Because of the complexity in creating any kind of index measuring expenses in the top 50 metro areas, expenses were excluded from this study entirely.

Investors: What do you think of the information in this study? Which data points surprise you (and which don’t)? 

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About Author

Scott Trench

Scott Trench is a perpetual student of personal finance, real estate investing, sales, business, and personal development. He is CEO of, a real estate investor, and author of the best-selling book Set for Life. He hopes to now share the knowledge he has acquired with others so that they will have the tools they need to repeat his results in just 3-5 years, giving them the option to go anywhere they want in the world, work any job, start any business, or finish out the journey to financial independence and retire young. Scott lives in Denver, Colorado and enjoys skiing, rugby, craft beers, and terrible punny jokes. Find out more about Scott’s story at, MadFientist, and ChooseFI.


  1. Brian Burke

    Great info, Scott! There weren’t a lot of surprises on the list actually…probably because the markets that are good are good for a reason and if you follow the stats you’d expect that they would do as well as they did…and vice versa. It’s great to have it all accumulated in one spot, thanks for doing all of the work!

    If you find yourself so inclined to do more data collection projects, I have a suggestion for the next project (hint, hint). It would be great to see a similar list of top (and bottom) MSAs for job growth, population growth, household formation, and units added (new construction) in both raw numbers and percentages. This would give readers the ability to see the market through the windshield instead of through the rear-view mirror.

    And one more metric to add to the list that you published…rent growth…this would give a similar read to the market’s appreciation of gross income rather than only seeing appreciation in asset value. A market that has only fair price-to-rent ratios today could seriously outpace a market with a favorable ratio if it had high rent growth while the other market was experiencing stagnant rents.

    • Scott Trench

      Thanks for the suggestion Brian – perhaps you could point me in the right direction to make getting that data easy for me? I’d be happy to put that together if I could get convenient access to the data for it!

      Once I have it, running the spreadsheet is no problem!

      • Brian Burke

        Yeah, that’s the big challenge, Scott. It’s not easy. Here’s what I know (and maybe there are some statisticians on BP that can expand on it): Job Growth would come from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Population Growth and Household Formation comes from the Census Bureau; Units Added would likely come from the National Association of Homebuilders; Rent Growth…beats me, maybe this has to be calculated using your sources for market rents and pulling two years of data. The only sources I know of for rent growth data are paid subscription services such as REIS and Axiometrics. I’ve heard that Moody’s has good data but I think that’s a paid service also. And then there’s anecdotal data such as the study from U-Haul that analyzes one-way truck rental data to show where people are moving from and to. There’s so much scattered data out there, to have it all collected in one place would be very powerful. Make it a pro member benefit and BP sells tons more pro memberships…and Josh gives Scott a promotion. Just sayin’.

      • william strother

        I find that for this kind of data national CRE Brokerages have excellent presentations put together. Marcus & Millichap, Berkadia, CBRE. You can also contact some local agents from those firms and they will give you their economists data on local markets, submarkets, etc. The best though is the booklets they give out at trade shows (they may have them at offices too?). Of course this is more multifamily and not single, but those items are macro in nature and they always provide a macro outlook. Ultimately though it’s mostly data compiled from government or large trade organizations, for example NAR, NAMB, etc.

        This was great though Scott. I’m Philly based but Dallas is always pretty compelling.

    • Tawana Keah

      Amazing snapshot on the market Scott. Thanks for taking time out to crunch the numbers into something easier to understand and putting this together for us in one detailed and informative format. Working with Real Estate investors, I have learned to better identify homes in North Dallas that have the best returns and avoid disaster. And, as Brian Burke mentioned, “And one more metric to add to the list that you published…rent growth…this would give a similar read to the market’s appreciation of gross income rather than only seeing appreciation in asset value.” would make this even more amazing. Thanks for your efforts Scott!

  2. Albert Zheng

    Cool data Scott. Thanks a lot for sharing this! I noticed that the downloadable spreadsheet link you shared is showing 2014-2015 data summary rather than 2015-2016. Do you have the raw data which generated the charts for this article?

  3. Ted Holmes

    This is very interesting and obvious that you put a lot of work into it. I understand leaving most of the expenses out of it, but since tax rates can vary so greatly between states; it would be interesting to see how that would affect net rents per dollar. Insurance would be too difficult and could vary, but it seems like the data on property taxes may be more useful and more accessible. In Oklahoma, we have about 1/2 the property tax rate of Texas (although we do have income tax); so even though the gross rent could be lower, the net could be higher when taking property taxes into account. Thanks for putting this together as it is a great source of information with the data available, and if someone is truly looking between several of these MSA’s, they could certainly compare the MSA’s using a bit more of their own data.

  4. Justin R.

    It’d be fascinating to take the same methodology and apply it to sub-markets. Obviously too much work for Scott to do, but I expect some MSAs would have relatively flat metrics across their sub-markets … while others would have wide variation.

    If such a framework existed to input metrics on sub-markets, it’d be sweet to see whether individuals from different markets would crowd-source a model for markets across the country.


    • Scott Trench

      Hi Justin – I agree that more data on submarkets would be fantastic. I think that the difficulty in putting that together and making realistic future assumptions is what makes real estate so great though! That which is obvious to me as a resident of Denver, such as which parts of town are likely to appreciate due to infrastructure and other changes, is extraordinarily difficult to put into a dataset and analyze in areas that I do not know well.

  5. Julie Gentry

    REALLY surprised to see Seattle on this list. With the city council doing everything they can to tax the hell out of property owners, force them to rent to undesirables, and it being the heroin capital of the US, I wouldn’t recommend Seattle to anyone. It’s just going to get worse; it’s not called Freeattle for nothing. Of course, this doesn’t apply to areas outside the city. Bellevue, Kent, even Burien are probably better than average investments.

    • Scott Trench

      It’s interesting how these cities with the supposedly most unfriendly laws towards landlords just keep seeing their rents and property values rise. I wonder if additional laws just completely backfire on their intended purpose. The more regulations with rental property, the better for the experienced landlords.

  6. Hey Scott, My wife’s brother is in Seattle . He is doing a couple flips a year and is making very good returns. He is in the position to pay cash for his properties. I have been tempted a little to go there also. I just don’t like rain 5 out of 7 days a week. It’s hard as a contractor to do the outside painting, etc when your used to Utah, southern Colorado climates. Thanks for the info it was very interesting to see Denver so high. I just moved here and will be closing on my first deal and should make close to $80-$95 on a purchase of a $53,000 house. I have done my homework to find it, (almost 2 weeks).

    As a contractor/Investor it is a little scary going into this election result to see what happens to interest rates, etc.
    We all hope for the best.

    Thanks again Scott


  7. michael anderson

    this is data and in-depth analaysis that any envestor/investor can appreciate and utilize no matter what region you reside in, thanks for the BP team for another outstanding research, keep posting but most of all keep sharing, this is one that i will archive into my databank!

  8. Aaron Mazzrillo

    I’m curious if the tech exodus from the Bay Area is the main driving factor behind the Portland increases? According to my buddy, a tech executive living in downtown San Francisco, many people in that area are looking to relocate to Portland because of affordability issues in the Bay Area.

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