Often, newer real estate investors ask me for recommendations on what to invest in. Although I’m honored to be asked, I usually let them know that I’m not a CPA and that the answer to that question depends on many factors, including their investing goals, level of risk tolerance, and amount of capital to invest. (Check out my recent article, “How to Invest Your Money When You’re NOT a High Net Worth Investor.”)
That said, when it comes to investing capital from my self-directed IRA, I do have my own set of “favorite” investments. So, what are these preferred investments?
How to Analyze a Real Estate Deal
Deal analysis is one of the best ways to learn real estate investing and it comes down to fundamental comfort in estimating expenses, rents, and cash flow. This guide will give you the knowledge you need to begin analyzing properties with confidence.
The 5 Best Investments in My IRA
1. Business Equity
Owning a business in your IRA is a great way to build your net worth. Although you may need to pay UBIT (unrelated business income tax), it still enables you to get more money into the qualified plan. Remember though that you can’t “self-deal” in your IRA, so the business your IRA owns needs to be separate from you and prohibited family members. Also, your personal involvement in the business needs to be minimal. So a great business to own in your IRA might be an out-of-state franchise—or in the real estate world, a business like a title company that you don’t personally use in your transactions.
2. Performing Notes/Private & Hard Money
This is one of my favorite investments, but even more so when I own it in my self-directed IRA. Investing in performing notes is extremely passive, especially if you hire a mortgage servicer, who will do all the accounting and management for you. Another great option is to lend out of your IRA. To stay in the real estate realm, your IRA can step into the hard money role and fund rehabbers on acquisitions and repair costs. Thinking beyond real estate, I guarantee there are local business owners with solid operations who can use more capital for equipment, inventory, or even operating expenses who would be interested in doing a loan with your IRA. The key, of course, is to make sure your IRA is covered in the event of default.
3. Shares of an LLC
There are many opportunities to passively invest in fund offerings or purchase shares of LLCs. This is true mailbox money, as you are not actively involved in a business’s day-to-day operations (i.e. you have no liability), and yet you still benefit from the business’s success. Think of it this way: Instead of owning an entire business (like in #1 above), your IRA becomes a fractional owner of a business or entity. If you go this route, all the rights and responsibilities of ownership should be spelled out in the operating agreement, so have your attorney review it. The point here is to buy an interest in a business that spins off cash and/or is likely to increase in value so that your IRA stands to benefit from the upside when the shares are sold.
Options, particularly lease options, appeal to me most because they require very little capital, yet the earnings can still build tax-free within my Roth IRA. I could write a book on options, but the main point is that your IRA can buy the right (the “option”) to do certain things like purchase real estate for what is usually a pretty small amount of money, and that option may gain in value when another buyer steps in and wants to get the property. It’s almost like a lien that has to be paid off for a buyer to acquire a property. Look up “options” on BiggerPockets to get the whole story. This strategy is worth knowing about.
5. Wholesale & Flip Real Estate
By purchasing wholesale and selling to a retail buyer or even another investor, you can still make a nice spread, while maintaining a more passive role in the deal. It’s much more favorable to do inside your IRA because it’s so highly taxed as a short-term capital gain outside a qualified account. The key here is structuring the deal so that the IRA’s ownership is truly independent of your personal actions. Maybe a “financial friend” could sell your IRA a fixer-upper house for $50K and then the IRA would turn right around and re-sell the house to a rehabber for $60K. Think about ways your IRA can get into deals like this, and you’ll soon realize that the possibilities are unlimited.
Related: 3 Pros (& 2 Cons) of Self-Directed IRA Investing
So, Why These Investments Instead of Others?
The investments I mentioned above usually come with less management headaches and aggravation than investments like buy-and-hold real estate, for example, which often require more work to own inside one’s IRA. As an example, with buy-and-hold property, do you realize that in most cases (checkbook IRAs aside), you have to have your IRA custodian issue checks to pay contractors for repairs, pay municipalities for taxes due and so on? And if you have any experience with typical custodians, you know that these seemingly simple requests often involves lots of paperwork and lots of time monitoring the custodian.
Active and Tax-Advantaged Investments
Is it better, sometimes, to use regular cash to fund your investments? Yes! Some tax-favored investments, like apartments or funds that purchase apartments, may be better utilized owning outside of my IRA so I can still benefit from all the tax advantages like depreciation, repair expenses, and mortgage interest deductions, etc.
I also prefer not to own super active investments in my IRA (i.e. buy and hold real estate deals, non-performing notes, etc.), as I don’t want to run the risk of disqualifying my retirement account. Be sure to check your custodian’s list of prohibited transactions to get clear on what’s allowed and what isn’t. Typically, actively managed investments are more frowned upon because they’re the most dangerous with the risk of disqualification.
WARNING: If a prohibited transaction occurs, the IRS could disqualify your IRA, essentially changing its tax-exempt status and making it a nonexempt trust. You would then be taxed on the entirety of your account. For example, even if you only invested $10,000 into the deal, but your account was worth $1MM, your whole account would be taxed. Ouch.
So, again, think of ways to establish that arm’s-length relationship with your IRA. For example, a safer way to invest in non-performing notes from an IRA may be to hire a specialty servicer who does all the borrower management on the IRA’s behalf. Likewise, you could hire a general contractor for the rehab on your fix-and-flip deal or a property manager for a buy-and-hold property owned by your IRA.
So now that I’ve mentioned some of my favorite investments to own in my self-directed accounts, what are some of yours? Or what do you purposefully invest in outside of your IRA?