Order of (Rehab) Operations

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Can someone please explain to me the proper order in which a rehab should be completed?

I think my wife and I are following what feels natural but I want to be sure we are executing correctly so we don't end up having to have work done twice or create issues.

We started with foundation, got the roof done, removed flooring and trim, removed drywall where needed, and gutted both bathrooms and kitchen.

My wife wants to add a sliding glass door to the back patio and we are added another door to the side deck so that needs to happen next I feel.

Plumbing and electrical are also about to happen.

Happy to provide more detail about our plan but I feel I am getting long winded here.

Sounds like you are on the right path. Structural to dry-in, inside structural, inside mechanical, inside finishes, outside finishes. Sometimes things can overlap, i.e. maybe you can have the back yard landscaped while counters are being installed. 

Think of it as if you were painting a floor. Key is to keep the project moving and not paint yourself into a corner where you have to ruin/redo something you've already done. So you wouldn't want to put down a new asphalt driveway and then have the drywall truck leave divots in it. Work your way from the bottom up structurally to dry in, get your mechanicals in (wiring, plumbing, HVAC), get your rough finishes in (drywall, tile, non-carpet flooring, etc), get your finishes in (paint, baseboards, doorknobs, etc), get your outside finishes in. 

And don't be dogmatic. If the painter is ready to go and there's no floors down, he doesn't have to paper anything. If the floors are down, he'll have to paper but the flooring guys won't be covering everything with dust. Some of it is going to be your personal preference. I, for example, prefer painting to happen after flooring is down, because there's dust on everything when flooring is finished. But I am finishing up a house now that had to have the painting done before the floors because there was a 4 week delay in the flooring installs. OK, that just meant an extra step dusting everything back down and saving some paint for touch-up that's inevitable with workers still coming and going. 

@Keven Culp On the exterior you move in a top down fashion, with the exception on the foundation which should always be competed first.
Exterior envelope ( i.e. Siding, Windows & doors, trim paint)

Interiors typically work from the basement up in this sequence -
MEP- Mechanical Electrical Plumbing rough in
Insulation and air sealing
Drywall hanging / taping and finishing
Paint or wall finishes
Finish flooring / tile, hardwoods
Cabinetry / casework / wall tile in kitchens and baths
Interiors doors / baseboard / crown molding / door and window casing
Finish plumbing and electrical - also called trim by tradespeople

That's it in a nutshell, some may use different sequences but this is a general activity framework.

Also some these activities can be moving along concurrently as to optimize the flow of the schedule.

If you have any further questions let me know. Good luck.