Flipping Houses

5 Tips for Assessing an HVAC System When Buying a Home

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One of the things that makes buying a house stressful is the nagging fear that something will break down soon after moving in. The range won’t heat up, the boiler will start leaking, or the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment will refuse to work, leaving a major hole in the household budget.

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You can’t predict the future, but the following tips will give homebuyers an idea of what to expect from a house’s HVAC equipment. But remember, these tips should not be used in place of the findings of a licensed home inspector.

The stat sheet on the house you are interested in should list the types of HVAC equipment, as well as the fuel used to power them. If it does not, be sure to ask. Here are some tips for judging HVAC equipment in a potential home.

5 Tips for Assessing an HVAC System When Buying a Home

Visually inspect the equipment.

Furnaces, boilers and air conditioning units are usually hidden away in a basement or utility area. Does the equipment look like it is in good condition? Does it make odd noises? You probably won't be able to make an accurate assessment of the system based only on how it looks, but you may notice something that concerns you. If you proceed to the next step of the home-buying process, you can discuss the issues with a home inspector. You can also hire an HVAC contractor to perform an inspection of the equipment.


Related: How to Inspect & Maintain Your Rental Property’s Electrical System

Ask about the system’s age.

HVAC equipment has a finite lifespan. Once the system is about 15 years old, it should be replaced. While many air conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, and boilers can work well longer than 15 years, especially if they are well maintained, energy regulations and advances in technology make newer equipment much more energy efficient — and therefore cost efficient — than older models. The Department of Energy estimates that a 12-year-old central air conditioner that is replaced with a new Energy Star model, which will be more energy efficient than standard models, can reduce your air conditioning bill by 30 percent.

Look for the energy label.

All heating and cooling equipment should have a yellow energy label. The label lists the energy efficiency of the unit and its operating costs relative to similar equipment. The table below provides a standard against which you can judge the equipment and the requirements for an Energy Star logo. Items that qualify are more energy efficient than typical equipment. Keep in mind that the table only lists minimum standards. You can find furnaces, air conditioners, and heat pumps that are much more energy efficient than the minimum ratings.

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Source: www.energystar.gov

Boilers and furnaces are rated by annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE), which provides information on the amount of fuel that is converted to heat. The seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) tells how efficient an air conditioner is in converting electricity into cooling. The heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) measures the heating efficiency of heat pumps.

Related: Home Inspections Can Save You Thousands: Here’s How to Get the Most Out of Yours

When judging the efficiency of the HVAC equipment in a home, know that the rating on the label refers to a brand new unit. Unless the equipment was properly maintained, it probably is not as efficient as the label states.

Ask about past maintenance and repairs.

Heating and cooling equipment needs maintenance to operate properly. It does not hurt to ask about past maintenance, especially if you show interest in the house. Sometimes, HVAC technicians leave behind a dated job ticket when they service an air conditioner, boiler, furnace or heat pump. It may be attached to the unit or posted nearby and tells the next technician what has been done to the system. Job tickets are essentially a mini-maintenance record. Check them for frequent repairs, especially if they involve big-ticket items like blower motors or compressors. A few large repairs on an older system could mean trouble in the future.


Notice the comfort level in different rooms.

Pay attention to how comfortable you are as you tour the house. There’s a problem if the house is hot and stuffy when the AC is cranking or if it feels drafty when the heat is on. If only certain rooms are uncomfortable, it could mean there is something wrong with the delivery system, such as leaking or uninsulated ducts.

Be sure to inspect the HVAC equipment as thoroughly as possible before you commit to purchasing a new home. Take the time to survey the equipment, and ask questions about its history. Taking simple steps can save you from discovering a big problem after you’ve moved in.

Investors: How do you inspect the HVAC system of the homes you’re buying? Anything you’d add to this list?

Leave your questions and comments below!

Fran Donegan is a DIY author who writes about home heating and cooling systems. Fran writes online for The Home Depot.
    Luka Milicevic Rental Property Investor from Nashville, TN
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Thanks for sharing. This is a great starting point for HVAC inspection!
    E. Barret Investor from Cleveland, Ohio
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Another easy part of the visual inspection: have a look at the filters on any ducted system. A clean filter will not tell you anything, but an overdue filter left in place certainly doesn’t say much to the previous owner’s attention to HVAC maintenance.
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Good advice for servicing your hvac system. Regular maintenance is a good idea if you want your air conditioner to last longer. Thanks so much for sharing.
    emily bennette
    Replied over 4 years ago
    This is some really good information about HVAC repair. I like that you talked about how you should ask about the system age. That does seem like it would be helpful information to know about as a homeowner. After all, older units will need more care than newer ones.
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Hi Fran, thanks for sharing these 5 HVAC assessing tips. I’ve recently bought a house and it’s 2 days we’ve moved here. Everything is okay with our new house, except when we turn on the AC, after 30 min we feel eye burning. What’s wrong?
    Elizabeth D. Shover
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Better information about HVAC overhaul. It is a helpful info to know about HVAC as an owner. Older units should be more handle with care than new purchased.
    Baxter Abel
    Replied over 4 years ago
    Thanks for suggesting to look for the energy label on HVAC equipment. I didn’t know the yellow labels existed, and it’s great to know the specifics behind what the energy star requirements are. Is it usually more costly to purchase the most energy efficient HVAC systems?
    Replied almost 4 years ago
    I’m from Texas and oh my God be sure to check those units! I can’t tell you how many of my friends have moved into a house and that summer their AC dies and they have to spend a lot of money quickly because it’s too hot to find cheaper options or invest in a better system. When buying a house, BE SURE to check the status of HVAC before you buy.
    Kenneth Johnson
    Replied over 3 years ago
    Thank Fran for 5 HVAC great tips. I’ve bought a new house ( 5 months ago), I used this tips to assessing my house and it looks like ok, nothing to fix. I really happy for this because you know it’s too expensive to fix or find another way better.
    Larry Weaver
    Replied over 3 years ago
    I didn’t realize that boilers can work well longer than 15 years. My own boiler has been having some issues, so I’m thinking of looking into rental boilers to take care of the problem. I’m pretty sure that the boiler that broke was something like 17 years old, so that might be why it broke.
    Account Closed Contractor from Maple Ridge, BC
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    I always tell my clients that just your air conditioner cooling isn’t the most important part of having an HVAC unit. The most important thing is to have consistent cooling. You don’t want one part of your house to be cool and another to be warm. That just sucks!