Commercial Real Estate

Cap Rate: A Must-Have Number for Rental and Commercial Investors

Expertise: Personal Development, Commercial Real Estate, Real Estate News & Commentary, Landlording & Rental Properties
100 Articles Written

If you’re new to real estate investing, you may be feeling overwhelmed and wondering how the heck to figure out which properties to buy. Optimally, you’d like to get a handle on which investments will be the most profitable before jumping in—and you can!

Calculating the cap rate, or capitalization rate, is hands down the best place to start, particularly for rental or commercial property investors.

What is a Cap Rate?

The definition of cap rate is the annual return from operations that an investor would expect to receive for a certain asset in a specific market at the current time, if the asset were to be purchased for all cash.

A cap rate helps indicate the rate of return that investors can expect to generate on an investment property.

While there are several ways to estimate the value of an investment property, many popular options fall short, failing to consider important things like capital expenses, deferred maintenance, market factors, or debt terms. This is why the cap rate should be one of your main rental analysis tools.

Still, it's important to recognize that cap rate has its limitations. For instance, it does not take into account the time value of money and future cash flows, account leverage, and other factors. It is also somewhat ambiguous in that there are not concrete numbers for "good" and "bad" cap rates. Rather, cap rate is a good way to quickly weigh one investment against another within the context of a specific real estate market with a goal of ascertaining which will produce a better return on investment (ROI).

How to Calculate Cap Rate

So, you’re at a local real estate meet-up, and someone presents you with an off-market deal.

“This won’t last long. It’s priced to sell. You better jump on it!” they say.

It sounds great. But is it really a good deal? Here’s where you begin your assessment.

The most widely used cap rate formula is simple:
Cap Rate = Net Operating Income (NOI) / Current Market Value

You can also turn this formula around to calculate any of the other variables.

Want to know what you should pay for a property?
Net Operating Income / Cap Rate = Value

Curious what your net income will be?
Value x Cap Rate = Net Operating Income (NOI)

Keep in mind in these cap rate calculations that:

  • The net operating income (NOI) is the annual income generated by the property, which can be calculated by deducting the operating expenses associated with the property, including maintenance and upkeep costs, as well as property taxes.
  • Current market value refers to the property value according to current market rates.

While some calculations for cap rate use purchase price instead of current market value, this version has its limitations in terms of old properties whose purchase prices skew very low, as well as inherited properties (where purchase price would be zero).

Cap Rate as a Measure of Risk

Cap rate can also be seen as a way to estimate risk. A higher cap rate usually implies a lower prospect of return on investment and thus a higher level of risk, whereas a lower cap rate conversely can mean a better valuation and thus lower level of risk.

So, is it better to go for a lower risk investment (lower cap rate) or a higher risk investment (higher cap rate) that might have a better potential for a higher return on investment? Unfortunately, as with most investment decisions, the answer isn’t cut and dry. Rather, this depends on personal investing goals, tolerance of risk, and many other factors. Because of these factors, it’s important to view cap rate as one aspect of many when evaluating a property for investment.

Cap Rate Example

For example, if a seller is asking $600,000 for a 10-unit apartment and the net operating income (NOI) is $30,000 annually, your calculation will look like this:

$30,000 / $600,000 = .05 = 5%

That is a 5 percent cap rate. This would be considered a high price and low cap rate by most historical standards for most assets in most markets.

You may decide that you won’t pay $600,000. You instead determine that you want to make a 7 percent annual return (aka cap rate) on your rental property, and you’re buying for cash.

What should you pay? Simply plug in the appropriate figures to determine the value:

$30,000 / .07 = $428,571

Notice that the move from a 5 percent cap rate to a 7 percent cap rate is a wide swing in price, from $600,000 to $428,571. The denominator in this equation causes a large fluctuation in the outcome.

In other words, a small change in cap rate can cause a significant change in value.

Also note that just because there is $30,000 in annual net operating income (NOI) doesn’t mean that you will take home that much. There may be capital expenses and other items to consider, most notably debt service if you take out a loan.

The principal and interest on a loan of this size could be a few thousand per month, which could eat up most of your cash flow. But if that’s true, why would you use debt anyway?

Well, one might choose to go that route because the use of leverage could allow him or her to buy more property for the same amount of cash. And it could multiply the appreciation received on an asset, as well.

Though I've been a commercial real estate investor for years, I'm still at times surprised when I calculate the power of debt with regard to increasing the value of equity in a project.

What is a Good Cap Rate in Real Estate?

Through the late 1990s, investors looked at about 10 percent as the benchmark cap rate for commercial assets as a whole. Today, average cap rates for multifamily and other real estate investments run from 4 percent to 7 percent, and 10 percent seems like a distant memory.

The massive influx of capital chasing multifamily deals has driven cap rates down to historically low levels, meaning prices are at historically high levels. You will become familiar with what’s a good or bad local cap rate once you begin shopping for and evaluating deals.

U.S. Multifamily Cap Rate History

Below is a chart showing large multifamily cap rates from 2002 to 2018. Keep in mind this is for large transactions, and these big players can often endure more compressed cap rates than you will want to consider.

The averages above include newer, more stabilized assets than you may be looking to buy, which likely means you will be taking on more risk, more potential maintenance and repairs, and a chance for higher vacancies. All this translates into a higher cap rate (lower price) for your transaction.

In your evaluations, you may also quickly realize that broker estimates of cap rates differ from actual cap rates. Brokers sometimes base the cap rate off of a pro forma (theoretical) operating statement, which means they calculate what the property will be making once you buy it (for an inflated price and implement your magnificent marketing and management changes).

You can draw your own conclusions, but I recommend that you rely heavily on past performance (what is) over future projections (what could be). It’s easy to be fooled in this regard. Be careful.

That said, if you have definitive changes that you can make to an asset to quickly improve its income, that can be an offsetting factor.

For example, my firm Wellings Capital acquired a 125-unit townhome community in 2017. We knew that the water and sewer expenses were more than 100 percent too high.

Through our due diligence process, we discovered the culprits. To improve the situation, we planned to install water meters on individual units, fix the leaks (stemming from old toilet flappers and pools), then pass the water bills back to the tenants.

We believed this would cut our water bill in half, adding about 10 percent to our bottom-line income. We took these steps after the acquisition, and turns out we were right.

Related: 5 of Your Most Burning Questions About Cap Rate, NOI & More—Answered

Other Methods of Analyzing Properties

As I mentioned previously, there are several other ways to evaluate properties prior to investing. I’ll briefly describe three of the most common and explain some of their shortcomings.

1. Price per unit.

This option is popular for its simplicity. The average newbie investor can quickly compare apartments at $50,000 per unit to others at $90,000. And many investors have an idea of the cost of newly built apartments (typically over $100,000 per unit all-in).

But this method fails to consider several of the most important factors in real estate investing, such as revenue, expenses, deferred maintenance, and other capital expense needs.

The neighborhood and the economy are not part of the equation either. Overall, this is a poor way to evaluate the value of a multifamily property.

Is $50,000 per unit (aka per door) a good deal in your hometown? Is $150,000 per door a bad deal?

It’s possible that $50,000 is a bad deal, or $150,000 is a great deal! There’s much more you need to know before making that judgment.

2. Gross rent multiplier (GRM).

When I first got into real estate investing, I heard that this was a good method of evaluating rental property value. The GRM is simply the price of the property divided by the annual gross rent.

So, let’s say a 30-unit multifamily property was priced at $1.5 million and the gross annual rent was $243,000.

The GRM would be:
Price / Gross Annual Rent = Gross Rent Multiplier
$1,500,000 / $243,000 = 6.2

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A broker may tell you this is a good deal because the “normal” GRM in your market is 7 or above. But not so fast!

The GRM fails to consider expenses, deferred maintenance, market factors (like supply and demand), and the property type. The GRM also assumes that you know the accurate gross income of this property and the other comparable properties in the market. Realistically, it’s difficult to be certain.

Brokers will often try to use the gross potential rent at full occupancy with no concessions, too. However, any number other than the actual gross rent renders the ratio meaningless. I’m not a fan of the GRM.

3. One percent rule.

I heard about this one before I ever considered buying a property. This rule of thumb states that the per unit rent should be at least 1 percent of the cost per unit.

A property priced at $75,000 per unit should therefore be renting for at least $750 per unit. This is perhaps the most well-known metric on Main Street. But like those above, I wouldn’t use it (except as a preliminary guesstimate when initially hearing about a property that’s for sale).

The 1 percent rule can indicate that the property is priced in line with revenue projections—but not much more. This ratio tells you nothing about operating expenses, deferred maintenance, capital expenses needed, or debt terms. It will not help you figure out if this will be a good cash-flowing property for you.

So, as you can see, all of these are somewhat faulty measuring sticks. This is why I propose that you adopt the use of the cap rate one of your main analysis tools.

businesswoman doing paperwork at office desk, working through finances, using calculator and making notes in her notebook with pen

Why Use Cap Rate

Cap rate is a better evaluation metric than the price per unit, GRM, and 1 percent rule because:

  • It accounts for both revenue and expenses.
  • It reflects the supply and demand for a particular asset type in a certain location at a specific time.
  • It reflects the asset grade (new Class A rates are often about a point below Class B).
  • It can have a connection to the interest rate on debt.
  • It is a standard metric that is widely used by most operators, investors, and brokers.

There’s a lot to say about cap rate. This could definitely be a much longer post. So, to conclude, I’ll briefly address a few common questions about cap rates.

Frequently Asked Questions About Cap Rate

Q: Could the cap rate get so low that the asset won’t cash flow?

A: Beware: this could happen—especially when using debt and when competing against the big boys in primary cities. You can calculate this yourself by factoring in the net cash flow including debt service, deferred maintenance, and necessary capital improvements.

Q: Why would a REIT or life insurance company buy an asset at a 3 to 4 percent cap rate?

A: Some institutional investors buy for cash or with low debt, and they love the stability and predictability of buying in primary or gateway cities like New York, Boston, L.A., and San Francisco. These assets have additional subjective value due to their location and steady demand. These buyers can endure low returns in exchange for stability and likely appreciation. I recommend that you don’t play in their sandbox.

Q: Is a high cap rate always a good deal?

A: If you hear about the sale of a property at a 10-cap, it may sound like a screaming deal. But you get what you pay for. There is likely a reason that it is selling so cheaply. Perhaps the operating statement is misrepresented. Perhaps it is a C- or D-class property in a high-crime (and possibly high risk) area. Maybe there are environmental hazards or other reasons the seller wants to dump it quickly. Buyer beware!

Q: I heard the cap rate is what it is. You can affect income, but you can’t affect the cap rate in the value formula (Income / Cap Rate = Value). Is that true?

A: While this is often true, there are tactics that can be used to compress the cap rates of certain asset types in certain situations. Our Wellings Capital funds are invested with operators who have strategies and proven track records of buying assets (like self-storage facilities) from mom and pop owners; making significant enhancements to marketing, operations, and resulting income; and selling to REITs or other institutional buyers. By doing this, these operators have been able to achieve significant cap rate compression in the sale of these assets. This results in substantial asset appreciation and almost unbelievable equity growth in conjunction with the careful use of leverage.

Do you understand cap rates better than you did 10 minutes ago?

Submit your cap rate questions or comments below.

After graduating with an engineering degree and then an MBA from Ohio State, Paul entered the management development track at Ford Motor Company in Detroit. After five years, he departed to start a staffing company with a partner. Along the way, Paul was a finalist for Ernst & Young’s Michigan Entrepreneur of the Year two years straight (1996 & 1997). They scaled and sold the company to a publicly-traded firm five years later. After a brief “retirement,” Paul began investing in real estate in 2000 to protect and grow his own wealth. He completed over 85 real estate investments and exits, appeared on HGTV’s House Hunters, rehabbed and managed dozens of rental properties, built a number of new homes, developed a subdivision, and started two successful online real estate marketing firms. Three successful real estate developments, including assisting with the development of a Hyatt hotel and a very successful multifamily project, convinced him of the power of commercial real estate. Paul co-hosts a wealth-building podcast called How to Lose Money and is a frequent contributor to BiggerPockets, producing live video and blog content on a weekly basis. Paul is the author of "The Perfect Investment—Create Enduring Wealth from the Historic Shift to Multifamily Housing" (2016) and a forthcoming BiggerPockets book called "Storing Up Profits - Capitalize on American's Obsession with Stuff by Investing in Self-Storage." Paul is the Managing Partner at Wellings Capital, a commercial real estate investment firm. Paul is offering free e-books on Self-Storage and Mobile Home Parks here.
    Curry Blackwell from Lubbock, Texas
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    Well done Paul. Very knowledgeable and understandable for most folks….I like the way to give the “good, bad and ugly” of any formula. You can manipulate just about anything. Be honest with yourself !
    Mark Reiland from Iowa City, IA
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    Very good article Paul. Good info.
    Scotty Ball Investor from Gainesville, Georgia
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    Once again Paul Moore has authored an excellent article. Very informative and well done my friend!
    Meg Ross from Madison, WI
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    I really appreciate the frank presentation of this subject, and how you point out the reality behind the rules of thumb I’ve heard of. Great article, lots for me to learn here. Thank you!
    Tek Kim New to Real Estate from Silver Spring, Maryland
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    @MEG ROSS I feel the same. I just wanted to thank Paul for the great article. I feel this is a straight-forward, non-biased article especially helpful for newbies like me.
    Account Closed from Bronx, New York
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    Wow. Great break down. Gave me much more of an understanding and provided me with a great tool to question certain deals that are brought to me from potential agents I am using.
    Arden Ballard from Madisonville, LA
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    Thanks Paul for the article and breakdown of cap rate and commercial investing. I do have a question I’d like you to explain regarding taking out debt. You said in your article: “Well, one might choose to go that route because the use of leverage could allow him or her to buy more property for the same amount of cash. And it could multiply the appreciation received on an asset, as well. Though I’ve been a commercial real estate investor for years, I’m still at times surprised when I calculate the power of debt with regard to increasing the value of equity in a project.” I assume you’re referring to BRRRR, but I’m having trouble grasping the concept as it is written. Am I missing something?
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    Hi Arden, Here is what I mean… If I increase the Net Operating Income on a property by 20%, it will increase the value of the asset by 20% b/c the Value = NOI ÷ Cap Rate. But if the asset is leveraged by debt, the equity growth is accelerated. That formula is Value Growth ÷ (1.0 – Debt %). So for 60% debt, equity growth = 20% ÷ (1 – 0.6) = 20 ÷ 0.4 = 50%. This is a 2.5x multiplier to the asset value growth. I hope that helps. Thanks.
    Arden Ballard from Madisonville, LA
    Replied almost 2 years ago
    Thanks Paul. I think I have a bit more learning to do to fully grasp this, but you’ve pointed me in the right direction. Thank you!
    Scott Pearson from Hunlock Creek, PA
    Replied over 1 year ago
    Does this apply equally to small multi family investments and large apartment complexes?
    Andrew Syrios Residential Real Estate Investor from Kansas City, MO
    Replied over 1 year ago
    Good breakdown Paul!
    Sam Bates Rental Property Investor from Dallas, TX
    Replied over 1 year ago
    Paul - Great article on cap rates and thank you for all you do for the BP community. I would like to make one point about cap rates that I believe too many people focus on when buying a property and it can steer investors away from great investment opportunities. That is the purchase cap rate has to be at least X% or above. Cap rates are a great metric to use when determine price of stabilized asset, but if someone is purchasing a distressed/value-add property I personal don’t think cap rates are the most relevant indicator of value. The NOI on a non-stabilized asset will be much lower than NOI on a stabilized property so the prospective buyer has a going in cap rate that could be significantly lower than the average cap of a building that’s the same vintage, class, etc. of a property in the same market. I’ve worked with several people that will not look at a property under a predetermined cap rate which I believe is short sided on their part. For example, if you can buy a value-add property at a 4 cap then go in and improve operations/increase NOI and the property increases to a 7 cap that is a great investment I’d buy every day.
    Courtney Duong Property Manager from Texas
    Replied over 1 year ago
    Hi Sam - what is the average cap rate for commercial (retails) in the Dallas, Frisco areas, do you know? Thanks.
    John Erlanger
    Replied 4 months ago
    There is no going in cap rate. There is going in NOI and stabilized NOI and market cap rate for stabilized properties. There are no cap rates for non stabilized cap rates. You use market cap rates to value the property as if it was operating to market and then make adjustments below the line to get from the going in NOI to a stabilized NOI.
    Beatriz Penate Real Estate Broker from Coral Springs, FL
    Replied over 1 year ago
    Hello Paul, what feedback could you give me about Baltimore, MD for a multi family of more than 5 units? Best and worst neighborhoods...?
    Adam Wallen Rental Property Investor from Grand Rapids, MI
    Replied about 1 year ago
    Great read Paul, thank you! I’m currently a single family or small-multi family investor, so the cap rate discussion doesn’t really apply. However, I enjoyed the article.
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied about 1 year ago
    Thanks so much, Adam! Happy New Year.
    Dentric Vance Real Estate Broker from Muncie, IN
    Replied about 1 year ago
    Thank this is a great article! I appreciate all the info and accompanying breakdowns. I’m new to the investing world, and I really want to make the wisest and most profitable decisions. This helps tremendously!
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied about 1 year ago
    Dentric, Thanks for your kind comments! I wish you the very best. Reach out to me at my personal profile and ask for a PDF copy of my book on multifamily and my 2 eBooks on mobile home park and self-storage investing. Best wishes!
    Quentin McNew Real Estate Investor from Champaign, IL
    Replied 10 months ago
    “How did you say you change the cap rate?” Very interesting...... I know you can change the property, but find it very hard to change the neighborhood and age of property (cap rate) haha. Great article and "cap rate" and the "LTV (cost basis)" are my top two favorite metrics. Great article and thanks for all the content you provide to the marketplace.
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied 4 months ago
    Hi Quentin. Sorry, I just saw this. There are quite a few ways the Cap Rate can change. One way (for example) is to modernize and professionalize an asset. Making it a professionally run "franchise" style asset can make it attractive to a larger or institutional investor who will pay much more per unit of NOI (therefore a more compressed cap rate). Creating a portfolio is another way. And of course, the economy nationally and regionally will affect the cap rate, but that is out of the operator's control.
    Joel Rietsema Investor from Grand Rapids, MI
    Replied 4 months ago
    Where does the cash on cash ROI fall in relation to cap rate? Cap rate doesn't typically include P+I into the expense category whereas CoC ROI does. Thanks for your post.
    John Erlanger
    Replied 4 months ago
    A cap rate will value a property. It is not a return. V=i/r CoC and ROI are return measurements. First you would use direct capitalization (cap rates) to value the property and then you can do your return calculations using the market value.
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied 4 months ago
    Thanks John. Great reply.
    John Erlanger
    Replied 4 months ago
    Then why are you saying it measures a return?
    John Erlanger
    Replied 4 months ago
    Jason Varley Investor from California
    Replied 4 months ago
    Paul, Great article, thank you! One thing I’m not understanding is how a higher (relative) cap rate indicates higher risk. If property A has a cap rate of 5% (say $5000/$100,000) and a similar property B in the same market can be acquired for $95,000, prop B cap rate is 5.5%. Why is prop B then considered a higher risk simply because it was acquired at a better price? If an investor is using cap rates to evaluate potential property deals, the acquisition price is a key variable (i.e. negotiable). What am I missing?
    John Erlanger
    Replied 4 months ago
    What you are missing is that cap rates do not measure risk or returns. See, the math never works out. You are correct in stating that if you pay less for NOI then the cap rate for that property will be lower. What you are not considering is that the market cap rate is based on a small range of property specific cap rates. You may be buying at a higher cap rate because of your negotiating skills or just because the property is slightly inferior to the other properties that have sold. Cap rates measure value. It can be indicative of risk and return but does not measure either. You can buy Class A office CBD in Philly at a 7% cap rate and the same in SF at 4%. Their risk is probably equal but the return is probably higher on the SF property. That is why investors are wiling to pay $25 for a dollar of NOI in SF but only $14.29 in Philly.
    John Erlanger
    Replied 4 months ago
    Oops, lower price, higher cap rate.
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied 4 months ago
    John, I really appreciate your replies here and I appreciate how thoughtful you are being. I agree with you that the risk is probably equal in those SF and Philly properties. I am assuming, Jason, that you are referring to this comment from my post: Q: Is a high cap rate always a good deal? A: If you hear about the sale of a property at a 10-cap, it may sound like a screaming deal. But you get what you pay for. There is likely a reason that it is selling so cheaply. Perhaps the operating statement is misrepresented. Perhaps it is a C- or D-class property in a high-crime (and possibly high risk) area. Maybe there are environmental hazards or other reasons the seller wants to dump it quickly. Buyer beware! If so, I would say this. A higher cap rate might mean a lower quality property. And therefore, in my experience, a higher risk property. And therefore a higher cap rate. People will pay a lower price per dollar of NOI with properties that have higher crime and delinquency risk in this case. And higher risk of non-paying tenants in a COVID or other time. Does that make sense, Jason and John? I am open to being wrong on this, but that is my take.
    Bob Romano Investor from Warwick, Rhode Island
    Replied 3 months ago
    ned some help here guys: Comm Bldg selling for $2 mill, NOI is $212,800 so CAP rate is roughly 11% , doesn't that seem high? Im trying to get her down to a sale price of $1.2/ 1.5 mill. That would put it at a 14 to 17% CAP , seems way too high. What am i missing?
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied 3 months ago
    Hi Bob. Feel free to reach out to me and you can jump on a call with me next Wednesday to discuss this. That is a very high top right, another words low price, and that may be a reason for concern.
    Ruifeng Cui Real Estate Agent from Portland, OR
    Replied 3 months ago
    Hi, Paul Can I get a PDF copy of my book on multifamily? I am recently check local market and want to invest multifamily units, usually 4 units or below ones. Thank you so much. Jacky
    Ruifeng Cui Real Estate Agent from Portland, OR
    Replied 3 months ago
    Sorry: a PDF copy of your book on multifamily. Thank you.
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied 12 days ago
    Hi Ruifeng, Yes, please private message me if you haven't got the PDF already. Happy to provide a copy!
    Sunny S.
    Replied 2 months ago
    Great article Paul! Thanks!
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied 12 days ago
    Thanks Sunny!
    John Erlanger
    Replied 13 days ago
    How can you say cap rates measure returns? That is simply not true and anyone with even limited experience with commercial real estate should know that. Cap rates come from an income approach to value called direct capitalization. It measures what investors have paid for NOI. Last I looked Class A office CBD in Philly was selling at a 7% cap rate. In SF Class A office CBD was selling at a 4% cap rate. Now do you believe that Philly office has almost twice the "return" of SF? If you do I may have a bridge you'd be interested in. All those cap rates mean is that in Philly a dollar of NOI sold for $14.29 and in SF it sold for $25.00. That is just factual. Now I challenge you to factually show me that either property has a higher "return" than the other! Will you take that challenge?
    Paul Moore Investor from Lynchburg, VA
    Replied 12 days ago
    John, Who is saying that cap rates measure returns? If I did, I must have mispoken. I've scanned the article and the replies and I cannot see where anyone said that, but maybe I did. I will say that cap rates are a projections of cash returns on an unlevered basis. So if I buy a $1mm property at a 6% cap rate, I will expect to have an NOI of $60,000 annually. So in that sense, cap rate is a projection of returns. Thanks for your passion!