Landlording & Rental Properties

3 Types of Investors Who Might Benefit From Owning Turnkey Rentals

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Guess what? Turnkeys aren’t for everyone. But guess what else? They are perfect for some people.

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There is much debate about whether or not buying a turnkey rental property is a smart investment. The primary argument that comes up against turnkeys is that they are sold more or less at market value, so you can't force appreciation on them, and being able to do that is the crux of rental property investing success.

I will say that forcing appreciation—buying something under market value and then doing something to increase that value—is one of the most solid ways of profiting on an investment property. It may even be the most solid way to profit. But the reality is there is a certain level of work, effort, skill, and risk that goes into doing the things to a property that will force that appreciation (assuming you aren’t just using the market by itself for appreciation).

Turnkeys offer you a property where all of this work has already been done, and therefore very little of your time is required to invest in the property. While you will then pay closer to market value for the property because you aren't the one forcing the appreciation, you also aren't required to invest all of that work, effort, skill, or headache into the property. You can also still be plenty profitable with the property if you buy right and manage your investment right.

So, obviously, there is a debate going on. Should you buy turnkey or not?

Before I continue, I do want to offer you some more information on this idea of doing the work to force appreciation for yourself versus going the turnkey route. I encourage you to read “Is It Better to Buy & Rehab or Purchase Turnkeys? Let’s Look at the Pros & Cons.” This article will give you a more in-depth discussion about the specifics of the two options, and it will even start to hit on who may fit better into which category.

Then to expand on that, let’s talk about who specifically turnkeys are perfect for! Of course, anyone can decide to buy a turnkey and it can be a great investment, but here are three groups of investors who I believe would benefit from turnkeys.

3 Types of Investors Who Might Benefit From Owning Turnkey Rentals

1. New Investors

As with just about anything in life, you will always be better at something if you first learn the fundamentals. It’s like learning to crawl before you learn to walk, skiing on the bunny slope before diving down a black diamond run, or learning to tread water before learning the butterfly stroke or the high dive. It can no doubt be frustrating to start slow and spend time focusing on the basics, but in the long run, you’re much more likely to succeed not only more smoothly but to much higher levels.

Related: Mastering Turnkey Real Estate: How to Build a Passive Portfolio

It’s all about building a solid foundation.

In my opinion, buying a turnkey rental property is a perfect way to learn the fundamentals of real estate investing. There are a few things that, no matter what investment strategy you decide to go with, you need to know and use on a regular basis. All real estate investments use them, require them, and rely on them. If any of these are lacking in your arsenal of investing skills, you could be in for a world of hurt.

Running Numbers

Duh, investing is all about the numbers. So if you can’t run numbers on a property you are analyzing, what are you really buying into? The idea that something might be profitable? Please don’t do that. There are very few investment strategies where you could get away with not understanding how the numbers work. Turnkeys are no exception to the numbers game. They are, however, a chance to learn the most basic understanding of numbers before you have to learn to work numbers on much more complicated investments. Once you understand how to run numbers on a simple property like a turnkey, you can then use that as your numbers foundation, so to speak, and then slowly add in more complicated paths. But at least you have established that solid foundation.

If you’re curious what running numbers on a basic rental property looks like, check out “Rental Property Numbers So Easy You Can Calculate Them on a Napkin.”

A Simplified Approach to Calculating Expected Value (EV)

Market Analysis

You’ve got to know the market you are investing in. You need to know why you are investing in that market. You need to know the risks of that market. Why? Because those aforementioned numbers depend on it. While there are a lot of markets I don’t personally agree with, I support anyone buying anywhere they want as long as they can explain to me why they are buying there. Even if I wholeheartedly disagree that buying in a particular place is a bad idea, if you can acknowledge to me that you know the exact risk(s) of buying there, then I will totally stand behind you.

For example, the most basic of market analysis questions is—is the market you are looking at a growth market, a stable market, or a declining market? If you can't tell me that, I don't think you have any business justifying a particular market. Turnkeys, at least the ones from turnkey providers, are almost always in cash-flow positive markets—meaning they are in markets that have price-to-rent ratios supportive of positive cash flow. Of those cash flow markets, I can promise that not all turnkey providers are in growth markets. I believe that some are, in fact, in declining markets. I personally don't advocate declining markets, but again, if you can intelligently explain to me that you understand the risks of buying in declining markets and you acknowledge that you are pursuing a declining market, I'll totally support you! Because turnkeys are available in both of these types of markets, they are a great way to teach you how to differentiate the types of markets out there and what factors to look for in a solid investing market. Even if you decide to flip later—and flipping markets can be very different than rental property markets—you are still going into it with a working knowledge of market analysis.

Due Diligence

Go ahead and mark this down as one of the most important phrases of your investing career. Everything you are told, everything you are quoted, every person you hire needs to have due diligence run on it. Some things require less due diligence than others, but you absolutely have to have a working understanding of how to do due diligence when it comes to investing. Turnkeys are the perfect thing to teach you this because, almost literally, your only job when buying a turnkey is to do due diligence on the property you are buying. Because you aren't rehabbing or getting quotes or swinging hammers or finding tenants or any of the other detailed work that goes into a property, this opens you up to have to do absolutely nothing else other than due diligence. Learning how to do this level of due diligence will help you perform more complicated due diligence as you advance through the investment ranks.


Because turnkeys are typically managed by property managers, you gain an opportunity to learn how to “manage the manager,” as I like to say. Much like with due diligence, managing the manager is an overseeing of sorts. When you are doing due diligence, you’re doing things from the 25,000-foot view rather than being down in the weeds. When you are managing a manager and managing the general flow of your property, that too is from the 25,000-foot view. Turnkeys aren’t always perfect, and once you own them, they are truly just like any other rental property, so you begin to learn things about the effects of bad tenants, the flow of the management, decision making, problem solving, and eventually exit strategies. All of these skills are foundational to any type of investing. And because you aren’t busy fixing toilets for your tenants, you have time to clearly learn these things and carry them on with you throughout your investing career.

If you want to check out a fairly entertaining article (if I do say so myself) on the difference between investing in something more simple like a turnkey versus going hardcore into the more advanced types of investing, and/or if you like snowboarding, check out “What Snowboarding Can Teach Us About Real Estate Investing Strategy.” You may get a clearer picture on the opportunity to learn the basics before you take on the harder stuff!

2. Side-Time Investors

This refers to the person who doesn’t want a career in real estate. Maybe they have a full-time job they love, maybe they have a family they are busy with, or maybe they are like me and would prefer to travel and lay on the beach than swing a hammer. This group of people just doesn’t want to expend a crazy amount of time or effort into real estate investing. They do, however, want to do something smart with their money. Turnkeys are excellent for this. As I said in earlier paragraphs, your main jobs as a turnkey investor are understanding numbers and markets, due diligence, and managing the manager. These things are fairly easy to learn if you take the time and practice them—and once you learn them, you’ve learned them. They aren’t as drastic as figuring out how to initiate and conduct a rehab, for example. They can be learned in short amounts of time, and the on-going learning of them is on the minimal side. This way, you are free to go about your life outside of your investments, all while still seeing good returns on your money.


3. Hands-On Investors—to Fill the Gaps

I’d say this one is the least talked about of them all. Everyone knows turnkeys are advertised as hands-off (which isn’t totally accurate, but they are certainly relatively minimal for time investment), and there have been discussions about the benefits of being able to learn the basics through something like a turnkey investment for the new investors. But I’ve not heard many people talk about why more experienced investors can benefit from turnkeys as well.

Typically, I don't recommend turnkeys for anyone who is willing, able, interested in, or skilled in doing things on their own. If you can and want to do it on your own, do that. There's more money in that. And for the most part, anyone who is already doing things on their own or has the interest in doing so isn't going to be entertained by what a turnkey offers, and it may even bother them or stress them out. There are several reasons why most experienced or handy investors want nothing to do with turnkeys.

However, there is one exception to this that I think is worth throwing out.

Let’s say you are a BRRRR-er or a flipper in your local town. That’s great! That’s the dream investment scenario for most. So you are trucking along, buying the distressed properties, rehabbing them, selling them or renting them out, possibly landlording them, and that’s your gig, fantastic! But there’s one hitch in all of it that some people do want to do something about—only being able to invest so fast.

Think about it. If you're busy buying a distressed property and then rehabbing it, your resources (mainly you) are tied up in that one property for a decent amount of time. You can't buy more or move faster because you only have so much ability when you are doing things on your own. You can, of course, start hiring out more and more and build systems so you can work yourself out of being a required part of the equation, but a lot of people don't want to be outside of the equation. They want to be in it—that's half the reason they are doing it in the first place. But let's say that while you're busy with that property and then with the next property, you have money sitting around that is doing nothing because you can't move fast enough to keep it all in flow. It's a good problem to have, I admit. But it's still money sitting around doing nothing.

Related: Turnkey Investing 101: What to Avoid & How to Know if It’s Right for You

If you can’t buy distressed properties and rehab them properly faster than you already are and you have money sitting around doing nothing, turnkeys are an excellent option to fill the gap.

For someone who successfully invests locally and rehabs themselves, turnkey can feel almost like a repulsive idea and an insult to your skill. I totally hear that. But I’ve started hearing from more and more experienced investors who are buying an occasional turnkey, just to be sure all of their money is working positively for them. It makes sense—inject a turnkey here, another turnkey there on occasion, all around what you are doing locally. It’s the perfect scenario. It’s diversification, it’s keeping all of your money busy for you at all times, you can sell your turnkey not too far in the future if you want the funds to help a local investment, but you were at least collecting cash flow on your money instead of it sitting around gaining you zero!

To Turnkey or Not to Turnkey?

The good news is there’s no right answer. Turnkeys are great for who they are great for and hated by others. At the end of the day, the only thing anyone should ever decide is what is right for them personally. What is right for one person may not be right for another. We all have different goals, different interests, and different skill sets. No one but you can decide what investment strategy is best for you and only you.

So what is it? Do you fall into any of these categories and think turnkeys might be right for you?

Comment below!

Ali Boone is a lifestyle entrepreneur, business consultant, and real estate investor. Ali left her corporate job as an Aerospace Engineer to follow her passion for being her own boss and creating t...
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    Replied over 2 years ago
    That’s exactly where I am at this point. I have lots of equity in my houses that I bought 7 yrs ago in California and I’m starting to refi/cash out & looking to purchase bulk portfolios of sfr in growing up & coming markets.
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hey Vincent! That’s great about that equity you have. Have you identified any markets of interest for those portfolios?
    Jackson H. New to Real Estate from Miami, FL
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Great post!! I been looking into turnkey company I just can’t trust them. Any suggestions which company it would be good to look at. Thanks
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hi Jackson. Sure, shoot me a direct message and I can make recommendations. Are you able to specify what exactly it is you don’t trust about them? As far as trusting them… there’s two things about that. #1, yes it can be hard to know who to trust because red flags aren’t always obvious (even to me, and I’ve been doing this for quite a while), but on the other side of it #2 it’s all about your due diligence on the property you select. If you can learn that, you don’t have to trust anyone or anything….you can just use your due diligence to verify everything. So it kind of goes both ways. Happy to help if I can though, shoot me a message anytime.
    Rob Cook from Powell, WY
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Interesting Ali. I am one of those who just does not see how turnkey can actually work unless appreciation is planned on and actually occurs, to save you by the bell. Sure, isolated cases of success surely exist, where turnkey can be profitable. Not being argumentative, and I am one of the most hands-on types doing rehabs full time on my own rentals. But let’s discuss the numbers. First, the exact same analysis pertains to a rehab buyer like myself or a turnkey buyer. Either the property cash flows or it does not. With either model, the numbers are shifted from, fixup costs in my case, to higher debt service for a turnkey buyer. If turnkey means, the property is already fixed up and ready to rent out/occupy, then presumably those fixup costs are already baked into the price. In my experience, with rentals, it is usually extremely difficult to find deals that will actually produce 5% returns, when all expenses are properly accounted for. And that is for my rehab purchases! I am usually not competing with potential homeowner/occupant purchasers for my properties. So there is usually not as much emotional demand and influence on the sales price. Yet, I still find it very hard to make the numbers work, even when doing all of the work myself on the rehab (I do try to adhere to applying retail value for all fixup costs in my accounting and analysis). SO, to be able to buy a profitable, cash-flowing turnkey deal (Assuming 80% LTV financing) is going to depend on finding a “stupid” turnkey rehabber it seems, one who either is willing to leave a lot of money on the table when they sell it, OR one who grossly undervalues their own fixup contribution expenses. Or I suppose a turnkey seller who is accepting of lower profits and plans to make it up in volume. I have bought quite a few rentals “turnkey.” but not from turnkey operators. No, they were from incompetent, would-be, rental investors who got in over their heads, over improved the properties thinking that would magically translate into higher property fair market values, like a simple math function. Of course, they discover too late, that no matter how much improvements they did, the rent price was not moved much, and therefore neither was the property value/price. It should be simply stated here that the following equation often does NOT work out in reality. Purchase price + fixup costs = Fair Market Value (Sales Price). NOPE! Wish that were true. And sometimes it “appears” to be the case, but that is the exception, not the rule. As I said, I buy rental properties, and often do not compete with owner occupant purchasers on them. So, in the end, an informed rental investor goes by the numbers. If improvements and fixup do not positively impact the analysis (increase the rent rate, decrease expenses, reduce turnover and vacancy, etc), then they are wasted inputs and will not be compensated for by a rational investor/buyer. Which brings me back to my main point – that in my experience, which is admittedly narrow and limited, I cannot see how a non-cash buyer of turnkey rentals can cash flow and be profitable, absent a stupid seller. And despite the idiocracy we live in, I do not like counting on finding a greater fool as a business model. So, I do not really differentiate between the distressed types of properties I usually end up purchasing, and your turnkey type rental deals. I analyze them the same in all ways. They either work, or they don’t in the numbers. The main thing differentiating the two types of deals is the opportunity cost of the buyer’s time. And that is a whole other subject and area where most people make major mistakes evaluating. IF the numbers work for a turnkey investor, then go for it, that is a dream situation for us all! But my experience (with my own limitations acknowledged) has shown me it is hard enough to make rentals work even when I have to do a ton of work on them myself (“Compensating” myself for my time and risk at an hourly rate of $75 an hour for the accounting and analysis). So it is only by finding workers who can actually produce at my level for much less cost, in reality, than my own $75 an hour cost, that a turnkey proposition can work out. I.e., the turnkey guys do the work for less than $75 an hour, fully burdened, all efficiencies accounted for, etc. Doing that, is essentially what contractors do all the time (I did for over 30 years as a major regional residential remodeling firm owner- and still own the firm today). I pay carpenters $25 an hour, and bill them out at $75 an hour, which, after a full accounting of all of my business expenses, etc. yields about a 10% profit or less over a 30-year experience as a top remodeling firm). And before anyone revolts in horror at a $75/hour labor rate, go to a car dealership and ask what their shop rate is. It is barely enough to be profitable at $75 an hour. So profiting as a purchaser of the turnkey rental property, has to be based on arbitrage. Finding sellers (turnkey providers) who “undervalue” their time, risk, and profit potential. Isn’t that the same thing we all do when we buy any well-analyzed real estate purchase?
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hi Rob. All good consideration and wonders. To most accurately be able to respond to it though, I’d really have to know more about what market you are working in and what kinds of numbers you are dealing with….to know more about your comparison points. You did mention the logistics of the “turnkey” properties you bought and just those are very different than the kinds of turnkeys I work with. I can say for sure turnkeys can be very profitable, just from my personal experience with them if nothing else, but I’d need to know more about your bases for the thoughts on them in order to address them specifically. Without knowing exactly those bases though, one thing you said that jumped out at me was “Or I suppose a turnkey seller who is accepting of lower profits and plans to make it up in volume.” The concept of volume is absolutely, hands-down, turnkey providers can typically make it work. It’s a volume concept on multiple sides, even. First, someone buying 20-100 properties at a time can buy all of the properties for cheaper than an individual investor can who is probably purchasing 1 at a time, maybe up to 3-5 at a time. It’s the idea of buying in bulk. Then, rehab costs are cheaper for them because they buy all of the materials in bulk (like, large bulk). Then, they can sell the properties cheaper to the investor a) because they got it all cheaper than the average investor would and b) they can do exactly what you suggest- make up for the smaller margins in volume. Again, that’s all specific to turnkey providers versus just turnkey-condition properties. But volume is one of the biggest components of how it can all work for everyone.
    Sean Ceschia Real Estate Investor from Phoenix, Arizona
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Turn a Key is the way to go..
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hear! Hear! 😉
    Jerry W. Investor from Thermopolis, Wyoming
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Turn key is easy. it is also the least profitable form of real estate investing. Turn key providers do not sell below market, they usually sell for well above market. If you can sell on the MLS and get $100K for a house, why sell it to an investor for $90K? The answer is that you will not. You pay a premium for turn key. Hopefully over time you will recoup your paying over market rent. You can buy nicer houses that need very little work and sometimes make good cash flow, especially with a motivated seller. Turn key operators are not motivated sellers. They are in the business of selling and so will not sell at big discounts to market value.
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hi Jerry. I agree with some of your points, such as “You can buy nicer houses that need very little work and sometimes make good cash flow, especially with a motivated seller.” There is certainly always an option to buy something fine and decent outside of a turnkey provider, for sure. Some points I don’t agree with though- – I guess this depends on the turnkey provider, but it’s not often one I work with sells a property above market value. They are typically more right at market value. They won’t appraise if the price is too high over market, so that knocks out a huge majority of buyers. So they couldn’t do that if they tried. There certainly could be some sketchy providers out there who do, but I’d put them in the “sketchy provider” category if it’s a regular thing that they sell over market. – The reason they are willing to sell at $90k instead of $100k is because of the repeat business and volume concepts involved with their model. If an investor comes back to buy from them 2+ times, they end up making more than the $10k difference between selling to the investor and a primary home buyer. – Correct on the big discounts to market value, but if that is someone’s biggest focus- over cash flow- then they can be strategic in which market they buy in and when (not so much an option right this second, but certainly an option during crash situations), and it’s all a trade-off to someone’s goals. I’d rather pay market value and not have headaches or have to do any work than buy below. But that’s just me. So it’s really dependent on the person and what they want.
    Steve Vaughan Rental Property Investor from East Wenatchee, WA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    I like the article, Ali. Multiple types of investors could benefit from TK. If it were me, though, I’d worry about such centralization of the whole thing. The TK co did the rehab, recommended the inspector, sold it to you with their realtor, then manages it. I need less vertical integration. I could see myself buying a decent b house off the MLS somewhere with a good realtor representing ME. I’d then find an unbiased inspector. I’d then find the best PM in the area. I may do that first. Either way, I’d have 3 professionals that may not even know each other. With TK, they’re all under one roof and all on one side. I highly doubt it will be yours.
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Good points Steve, but typically….at least with the turnkey companies I work with….it’s not that integrated. At a very minimum, I never encourage anyone to use an inspector that is in any way associated with the turnkey provider. That is the easiest one to make sure are *not* associated with them. I’ve also never seen a Realtor used in a turnkey purchase, at least not in the sense of helping the buyer. There typically aren’t agents listed on the closing docs at all…everyone is typically representing themselves. But to that point, I do recommend your point as being one reason to work with a turnkey promoter rather than a provider directly so that you do have someone looking out for you and you aren’t just having to rely on things the turnkey provider tells you. And then for PM, I tell everyone to interview PMs as if they were buying outside of turnkey and decide who to use based on that. Once you buy a turnkey, you’re in no way forced to use the PM that comes with the property. So yes, there could be cases where that level of vertical integration exists, but I don’t usually see the whole thing without encompassing 3rd parties. Even if it did come with that level of vertical integration, you could easily change that and hire your own 3rd party folks.
    Nathan G. Real Estate Broker from Cody, WY
    Replied over 2 years ago
    I see turnkey as a great way for certain investors to sock away their money and get a safe return. My father-in-law purchased properties 100% cash which is a terrible cash-flow but he was in his 70’s and wanted safe, not creative wealth building. I think the greatest danger her is the all-inclusive turnkey company that buys the home, renovates, sells it, and then manages it. They are making profit at every turn and it provides far too many opportunities for the client’s wallet to be squeezed. I would prefer to create some checks and balances by spreading the process across multiple companies.
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    It’s a good point Nathan, but there are pros and cons of both ways. You present the pro to doing it all yourself and piecing together each person in the puzzle, but then the potential con to that is lack of incentive. So on one hand, a turnkey provider makes money on all of those parts of the equation so they could squeeze your wallet, but on the other hand because it’s all under one roof (ha, great pun), the incentive there is stronger to perform up to standards. Whereas like if you put together parts of it where the people have no tie to one another, they don’t have as much incentive to perform because they won’t lose much if they don’t. You point is absolutely valid, but as with anything, it can go either direction. The critical part of this though, in regards to your point, is due diligence. Before anyone closes on a turnkey, they can verify every single thing. And if the numbers don’t work because the company somehow squeezed their wallet, then don’t close on the property.
    Christopher Stacy Rental Property Investor from Wiesbaden Germany
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Ali (or anyone who can answer the question), how do know if the market you are looking at is a growth market, a stable market, or a declining market? Especially if you are not local to that market? I live in Virginia and I am looking at the Tampa area. My realtor tells me that deals are few and far between and most properties are priced at market. Obviously, that’s not a declining market, but what is the process to analyze that or any market? Thanks!
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hey Christopher. Great question. I may not be the best person to answer it as I work with professionals who do that kind of analysis on a regular basis, and they are much smarter than I am on it. I would first look at population trends…those are easy to see. If it’s a steady increase, that’s a good sign. Unemployment rates. Look up general stats about the market. What big industries are there? Jobs? The more jobs, the better the sign of a growth market. Housing price trends.
    Kennith Osborne from Spring Hill, Tennessee
    Replied over 2 years ago
    A list of providers turnkey providers and most importantly property management companies on BiggerPockets with a discussion section would be very helpful. I have considered doing this to get started. I think a property manager would be helpful in helping you evaluate what they can rent a property for in the area they operate.
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Yes, absolutely Kennith. I encourage everyone to verify the rental income on a property by calling a 3rd part property manager and getting their opinion (even if it means paying a small CMA fee). The list of TK providers and companies already exists- I think it’s Brie Schmidt and Jay Hinrichs started it. I haven’t looked at it in years, so I don’t know how valid or accurate the information is. One warning I’ll give about that though is that in my experience, everyone who has had a good TK experience is no longer on BP or on blogs, and therefore won’t contribute to something like that. Just because they already got what they needed, learned what they needed to, and moved on. So most often, unfortunately, the only people who tend to respond to things like that are people that either had a bad experience or have never bought a turnkey but for some reason want to speak to them, which is just unfortunately inaccurate information. I know of hundreds of people that have had great turnkey experiences, but I’ve never seen any of them report on it anywhere on BP or otherwise. So, it’s a bit tricky in terms of reviews being able to paint accurate pictures.
    Vera Herlihy Investor from Redondo Beach, California
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Ali! Thanks so much for your insight. We recently bought a semi turnkey in Pitts. The reason it’s a semi turnkey is because we buy the distressed property with the provider and his company does the rest. But we get the benefit of the BRRR method. So because we buy the property, pay for the rehab, we get the benefits of the forced appreciation it’s almost like how everyone else does it. Do we pay for his services, yes of course we do. As first time out of state investors, this worked out very well for us, for all of the reasons you stated above. We are almost done with the rehab. I’ll have to share the final out come. Thanks so much for your time. @veraherlihy Promember
    Ali Boone Business Owner & Investor from Venice Beach, CA
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hey Vera! I’m really glad you shared this! Would you be interested in sending me a direct message and keeping me posted on how it all goes? I’d love to know if it’s a company you ultimately have a great experience with as I’m always keeping an eye out for new opportunities. Talk soon!
    J Vogl
    Replied over 2 years ago
    Hi – Newbie question here…How do you determine the status of a market – growth, stable, decline?